The political crisis in Tunisia has prompted a surge of social media propaganda and manipulation emanating mostly from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), a lot of it attempting to skew the narrative so that it justifies Tunisian President Kais Saied’s final decision to suspend parliament and sack the key minister.
Shortly following information broke of Saied’s unparalleled go on Sunday, the hashtag “Tunisians revolt versus the brotherhood” commenced to trend on Twitter, in reference to the Muslim Brotherhood.
But as with just about anything on social media, specially in the Center East, it was not immediately clear whether the craze represented natural and organic public viewpoint. And if it did, whose impression it was?
An analysis of social media facts and discussions demonstrates a amount of insights, this sort of as who was composing about a distinct topic, and whose voice is influential on that topic.
It can also reveal wherever people men and women are, and regardless of whether they are legitimate individuals or bots, which are bogus accounts intended to manipulate general public discussions through censorship and intimidation, and craze manipulation.
An investigation of 12,000 tweets from 6,800 special Twitter accounts on the hashtag “Tunisians revolt towards the brotherhood” revealed a concerted effort by Gulf-dependent influencers to portray the actions of the president as a preferred Tunisian revolt from Islamist functions these types of as the Muslim Brotherhood.
The major occasion in Tunisia’s parliament is the Islamist Ennahdha party, which has accused President Saeid of staging a “coup”.
On the other hand, the the greater part of consumers tweeting with the hashtag documented their place as staying both in Saudi Arabia or the UAE.
In addition, the best 10 most influential accounts on the hashtag have been all Gulf influencers also dependent in Saudi Arabia or the UAE.
These accounts provided Emirati Khalid bin Dhahi, Saudi influencer @s_hm2030, Saudi cartoonist Fahad Jubairi, the Emirati writer Mohamed Taqi, as nicely an Emirati patriotic account identified as emarati_protect.
They pushed narratives that sought to body the president’s incredible measures as a preferred revolution versus the Muslim Brotherhood.
Saudi influencer Monther al-Shaykh, the most influential account in the whole hashtag, even called the sacked primary minister the “Khamenei of Tunisia”, placing him on a par with Iran’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, whom Saudi Arabia has demonised.
The specially anti-Muslim Brotherhood narrative obviously reflects the overseas and domestic procedures of the UAE and Saudi Arabia, which have been inexorable in their crackdown on Islamism and the Muslim Brotherhood all through the Middle East.
Al-Shaykh has been acknowledged for his outsize part in monopolising Arabic Twitter narratives. He has gained a name as a key influencer spreading disinformation and nationalist propaganda on Arabic Twitter.
In analysing the hashtags in the aftermath of the murder of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi in 2018, a person study by Harvard academics Alexei Abrahams and Andrew Leber documented that on a hashtag relevant to Khashoggi, retweets of al-Shaykh accounted for 8 per cent of all retweets – and there had been 365,000 consumers on that hashtag.
Last 12 months, al-Shaykh, together with several UAE-dependent journalists, tried to thrust a bogus narrative that there experienced been a coup in Qatar. Saudi Arabia and the UAE, along with Bahrain and Egypt, imposed a blockade on Qatar in June 2017. But in January this calendar year, the blockading countries agreed to restore ties with Qatar.
A lot of of the other accounts spreading propaganda about Tunisia are also regular participants in regional disinformation strategies.
Cartoonist Fahad Aljubairi and s_hm2030, were pretty active after a suspected Pegasus spy ware an infection resulted in many Gulf-based mostly accounts spreading non-public hacked pics to smear Ghada Oueiss, a outstanding Doha-centered information anchor at Al Jazeera Arabic.
Bots and sock-puppets
In addition to this, a person of the most influential of the 6,800 accounts on the hashtag experienced the take care of, @7__e7, and the title Fairuz.
Evaluation of the account, whose posts were retweeted hundreds of instances, confirmed it was fake, and her tweets on the hashtag contained an unrelated “comic” video clip of a man or woman slipping out of a auto although reversing.
On the other hand, though Fairuz was technically a single of the most influential accounts on the hashtag, none of the accounts retweeting her was serious.
10/ The beneath GIF shows how the community close to Fairuz tweets at speed (higher velocity). Look at the yellow cluster at the base. It goes from the preliminary tweet by fairuz to more than 200 retweets in a five moment window. This is indicative of manipulation #Tunisia #disinformation pic.twitter.com/52xSuM15gm
— Marc Owen Jones (@marcowenjones) July 26, 2021
They ended up sock-puppets – hacked or pretend accounts programmed to quickly retweet written content, investigation of the accounts showed.
One particular case in point was the account of a 14-yr-previous Filipino girl, and an additional man or woman with the identify Emma Roberts, who experienced a image of a Smurf as their exhibit picture.
Working with hacked Twitter accounts for marketing and advertising is frequent, but it is also utilised for spreading propaganda in the MENA area, particularly throughout major political occasions.
Extremely retweeted phony accounts often characteristic in the leading tweets section of Twitter, raising the salience of propaganda to these looking through the news.
Fairuz’s tweet garnered more than 200 retweets inside of 5 minutes, a speed so speedy it strongly suggests automation.
Fairuz’s account was suspended by Twitter past night following a thread about her went viral.
A long time of analysing propaganda hashtags have revealed a familiar roster of names and influencers that form a Gulf Twitter elite based largely in the UAE and Saudi Arabia. This elite monopolises Arabic political conversations on Twitter with hyper-nationalist tropes.
These influencers are augmented by trolls and bots who spread propaganda and intimidate critics.
The hashtag “Tunisians protest towards the Muslim Brotherhood” represented no evidentiary claim or grassroots movement, which does not imply that there are no Tunisians who maintain that check out.
It is, nonetheless, distinct that Tunisians on Twitter were being not reporting en masse that they ended up rebelling against the Brotherhood.
Rather, it was propagandists speaking on behalf of Tunisians, trying to influence nearby and worldwide audiences that the Muslim Brotherhood signifies an existential menace and that liberation from them is a justification for a return to authoritarianism.
This digital playbook highlights that social media is generally not the democratising area exactly where voices are equal, in particular in the Middle East in which authoritarian regimes, together with their known potential to surveil and digitally monitor dissidents, coupled with their willingness to get rid of and arrest critics, has worried individuals into silence.
Usually, this silence varieties a vacuum, which is then crammed with co-opted influencers who repeat federal government conversing points and distribute point out propaganda with minimal contestation.